01
May
15

Role Models, Innovators, and their Peccadillos

0515MEM_cover-no boxHaving had the opportunity to get to know many Apple Inc. executives during the early and often tumultuous years of the Macintosh, it was with some anticipation that I downloaded to my iPad the new book, Becoming Steve Jobs, as soon as it became available.

This newest book on the Apple co-founder comes across as the antithesis to the celebrated 2001 book, Steve Jobs, written by Walter Isaacson, who cast the Apple guru as a mercurial and cantankerous genius. The new book, written by Brent Schlender and Rick Tetzeli, two journalists who have long covered Apple and have access to many company insiders, paints a different psychological profile of Jobs. While they admit to some early bouts of combustion, the authors focus on a more mature leader who was open to the talents of others. It comes as no surprise that Apple wholly embraced this book’s version of Jobs.

The brilliance of Jobs is undeniable and has never been in question. At least not since those early days when the relationship between Jobs and then-CEO John Scully was at the boiling point. The turmoil surrounding Jobs’s penchant for doing his own thing eventually drove him out from the company that he had helped create. His return, years later, led to Apple’s incredible renaissance and to its current position among the world’s top companies.

But the new book’s preoccupation with hallowing Jobs disturbs me. Jobs is one of the great innovative minds and transformative figures of our time and will be revered as a great technology visionary. There is no reason to try and remold his personal peccadillos posthumously. Calling attention to Jobs’s evolving maturity rings defensive and diminishes him.

I’m all for celebrating innovators—for what they do more than for who they are. Here at ASME, we honor technologists every year who have contributed to the profession and to humankind. We even created an exhibit, some years ago, called “Heroes of Engineering,” which featured a collection of famous engineers who contributed to some of the greatest achievements of the 20th century. They included Michael Owens, who owns the patent for the automatic bottle-making machine; the Wright brothers; Garrett Morgan, who invented the gas mask; and renowned inventor Dean Kamen.

In this issue we focus on the work of innovators rather than on the individuals themselves, and we found our inspiration for two of our feature articles from Mother Nature’s gifts of air and water.

In “Shape Shifting Target,” Michael Friswell details how researchers working to optimize commercial aircraft efficiencies are watching the morphing wings of birds for lessons on how the wings of aircraft can be optimized for better performance. In “Go Fast With the Flow,” we move to water flow, from air flow, as John Martin tells us how world-class swimmers shave precious seconds off their race times with the help of an engineering software program that’s typically used in industrial applications.

The unsung heroes may well be the engineers who work behind the scenes with great technology, and also the role models and mentors who go unnoticed, but setting your sights on becoming Steve Jobs is not so bad either.

02
Apr
15

MENDING A BROKEN HEART

0415MEM_cover-l-rLife has a way of breaking our hearts from time to time. Mine’s been broken plenty and I’m sure yours has too.

Some researchers believe that, besides bringing on a lot of misery, in extreme cases a broken heart can have decidedly deadly consequences. Psychologists and medical doctors continue to study whether people can actually die from a so-called broken heart and while there are no definitive answers, there is an ailment known as “broken heart syndrome”—also called stress cardiomyopathy—that can lead to severe cardiac problems and even death.

Deep sorrow brought on, say, by the passing of a loved one is believed to cause such tremendous stress in some cases that it triggers mechanical failures of the body. This syndrome can also be elicited by trauma such as a car accident or by indignities or deep distress. When these types of emotional peaks occur, our bodies unleash chemicals, including adrenaline, that can stun the heart muscle and disrupt its pumping mechanism.

While cases of death by heartbreak are rare, the latest research from the World Health Organization shows that 17.5 million people died from cardiovascular diseases globally in 2012; this represents 31 percent of all deaths. In the United States alone the total medical costs of cardiovascular disease will reach $818.1 billion over the next three decades, according to a report called “Forecasting the Future of Cardiovascular Disease,” published by the American Heart Association.

To help stem the tide of cardiovascular disease, a multidisciplinary team of heart experts has launched the Living Heart project, which represents the next frontier in diagnosing, treating, and preventing heart conditions with the use of personalized, three-dimensional virtual models.

In our cover story this month, associate editor Alan Brown takes us on an interesting journey examining the fascinating way this project originated. At the core of the project is Dassault Systèmes’ Simulia software, which is used to render a 3-D model that captures the electrical and mechanical behavior of the heart in a realistic manner.

By using input from echocardiograms, MRIs, and CT scans, along with other cardiac data, the Living Heart project has created in virtual reality a representation of chambers, movements, and sounds reflecting the behavior of a human heart. Doctors can maneuver this simulation to reveal detailed behavior of the heart without resorting to invasive diagnostics.

Even though the developers working on the Living Heart make no promise that they will be able to mend a “broken heart,” this simulation tool does have the potential to open the door for more research on cardiovascular illnesses, as well as to accelerate regulatory approval cycles for personalized devices and improve patient diagnoses and care.

Besides focusing on the heart in this issue, we also feature a fascinating essay by renowned biomedical and nanotechnology expert—and mechanical engineer—Mauro Ferrari, who discusses how nanomechanics is opening new avenues in the treatment war against metastatic cancer.

 

02
Mar
15

NEW WAYS TO SKIN A CAT

0315_cover_no-boxWith apologies to cat lovers everywhere, time and again we see proof that there is more than one way to skin a cat. One example is in the innovative way new technologies have redefined oil production and the entire industry.

Until recently, the price of oil was controlled by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which gave a handful of oil-producing nations geopolitical leverage over the rest of the world. But several new occurrences, including the shale oil revolution in the United States, have dramatically altered the global energy landscape. For now, there is a “new oil order” spurred by technologies that have proven to be transformational. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have pushed U.S. oil output to its highest level since the 1980s.

OPEC now is afraid that demand for its crude will keep falling as North American supply grows and makes its way to the global markets as U.S. export barriers fall.

Hydraulic fracturing is one reason for the shift—and some of the leading experts on the technology will convene at ASME’s Hydraulic Fracturing 2015 conference in Houston this month (visit asme.org for details)—but the process of extracting oil this way has not been met with universal endorsement.

Critics mostly worry about water. Contributor Mark Crawford points out in this month’s cover story, beginning on page 30, that a typical hydraulic fracturing job requires between 2 million and 5 million gallons of water per well. The problem that emerges from this is twofold. First there’s the issue of depleting groundwater resources, and then there is the fear that the chemical alchemy that is poured into the water to reduce friction and the growth of bacteria and corrosion will pollute local aquifers.

A solution may be in sight as some companies have found ways to “frack” with less water or no water at all. But Crawford reports that less than 3 percent of the fracturing jobs in the U.S. are waterless. That could change if U.S. companies take a page out of Canada’s playbook, where about 25 percent of the fracturing jobs use waterless processes.

Technologies such as hydraulic fracturing are evolving as engineers continue to search for better ways to extract oil, build up supply, and reduce reliance on OPEC. To me that’s an example of using technology innovation to re-skin a timeworn economic model.

A sad note…

Robert E. Nickell, the long-time chair of the Mechanical Engineering Magazine Editorial Advisory Board, an ASME past president, a devoted and engaged volunteer of the Society, and a friend, passed away due to complications related to a recent battle with cancer.

Nickell’s contributions to ASME and to global safety standards cannot be overstated. He was a man whose intellect was matched only by his leadership, his wisdom, and his passions. He was passionate about his family and his friends, as well as his beloved profession and ASME.

It is often a cliché to say that one individual truly touched many lives. In the case of Bob Nickell, the statement could not be more fitting. Those of us who knew him feel a deep personal loss. To read more about Bob visit asme.org.

01
Feb
15

THE NONFICTION OF SCIENCE FICTION

0215MEM_cover_no-boxWhen viewed through an engineering lens, science fiction deals in dubious possibilities that become conceivable when reason and know-how are applied. Science fiction emboldens the aspirations of innovators and of dreamers, and it drives the pursuit of tools that will reach the far ends of the world and beyond.

Science fiction has been coined “the literature of ideas” because it feeds the process of ideating the future. It does not predict it, however. It simply contemplates it.

Last year, two professors at the famed MIT Media Lab, who believe that current students don’t read as much science fiction as they did in the past and, therefore, have lost some of the benefits that come from it, began teaching a course called “Science Fiction to Science Fabrication.” The focus was on developing physical prototypes and code-based interpretations of technology based on classic science fiction—films, books, television, and even comics. Among other selections, the class studied urban surveillance as depicted in DC Comics’ late-1990s Transmetropolitan and also the 1974 short story, “The Day Before the Revolution,” which tackled aging, death and grief, and even sexual conduct.

As groundbreaking as it was, there are many examples of technology imitating science fiction outside of the Media Lab. In his 1865 novel, From the Earth to the Moon, for example, Jules Verne proposed the notion of light-propelled spaceships. Not surprisingly, technologists today are actively working on solar sails. If you’re a fan of Stanley Kubrick’s 1968 epic science fiction film 2001: A Space Odyssey, you felt a tinge of nostalgia when a robotic probe launched by the European Space Agency’s mission control in Germany landed on a comet last November. Consider also the symbiosis of science fiction and IBM’s recent $3 billion R&D investment in technologies like non-silicone computer chips, quantum computing research, and computers that mimic the cognitive function of the human brain.

At the rapid rate of technology innovation, some of what is considered science fiction today will become reality in the next 50 years. Soon enough, replacement organs could grow in labs, and drones might fly over our cities and towns delivering packages. To many of us, the prospect of these types of emerging technologies sounds exciting, but a recent study by the Pew Research Center shows that even while recognizing the benefits of sci-fi technologies, many in the United States do not embrace these advances.

The study shows that 59 percent of Americans are optimistic that scientific and technological changes will improve quality of life, but 30 percent are afraid the changes will make life worse. In the findings, 81 percent of respondents think that it will be possible to grow organs in labs, and 51 percent think computers will be able to create artwork just as well as humans. But fewer than 40 percent expect that teleportation will be possible in the next 50 years and only 33 percent say they expect that humans will be colonizing other planets.

In this month’s cover story, associate editor Alan Brown and contributor Brittany Logan talk with several innovators who tell us how science fiction informed their work. For them, the future represents an open canvas where they can paint their vision of reality inspired by the unrestraint of fiction.

01
Jan
15

THE EMPOWERING ELECTRIC GRID

0115MEMpcov1It’s been more than two years since Hurricane Sandy hurled its massive destructive muscle on the Atlantic coast, leaving behind wrecked lives and millions of dollars in damages. By now, most of the damage has been cleaned up, even if the nightmares persist for those whose homes and lives had to be rebuilt.

For those of us who didn’t suffer property damage, Sandy made us aware of an electrical grid that almost never fails. We had to adapt to a temporary life without television, hot showers, and the other first-world perks we’ve come to rely on. We lived through seemingly endless days in the dark, and even when things began to get better we had to huddle with strangers at communal tables in coffee shops that had access to the web. And we waited on long lines to get a ration of gasoline to power generators and feed our cars, only to be told when we got to the front of the line that there was no more fuel left.

In this issue we take a deep dive into some of the critical risks to the grid that threaten our accustomed way of life. This month’s cover story, “Pandora’s Net” is a fascinating article that reviews some of the vulnerabilities in the grid that can be exploited by savvy hackers. “All the stuff we’re doing in Western society in regards to cybersecurity is probably ten years or so behind the curve of what the bad guys are doing,” a security consultant told Brittany Logan, a journalist who spent several months researching this article for us.

In the second article, “Right-Sizing the Grid,” physics professor David Newman, says, “There is something about the grid’s very size and structure that increases the risk of cascading failures, where a single event can touch off a chain reaction of failures.”

The implications of an electrical grid shutdown are severe. Many of us have lived through blackouts, some of which have stretched into weeks. We’ve also read in both academic literature and science fiction about doomsday scenarios from the effects of electromagnetic pulses from the sun, or from atomic weapons, or from terrorists, with the potential to take down the grid for much longer periods.

But we mustn’t disregard the large portion of the world that has never been connected to a grid. In contrast to veterans of Sandy, students in the developing world regularly crowd around transportation hub parking lots to access just enough light from street lamps to do homework, and women often travel far by foot for clean water only to be turned away when the limited supply is exhausted.

To 1.3 billion people in developing countries the path to global development is based on access to energy. The economic and quality-of-life benefits that emerge when poor communities have access to affordable electricity are transformative. Without it, obtaining clean water, refrigeration, and proper sanitation is jeopardized, as is the ability to access the Web and all of the world’s knowledge.

This is why the topic of energy poverty shouldn’t be ignored in conversations about the electric grid. The threats to our energy infrastructure are serious, as this month’s articles detail, but so are the dangers to society if we overlook the people who have no energy infrastructure to rely on.

 

23
Dec
14

PLANNING YESTERDAY FOR TOMORROW

1214_cov_no-boxMy friend Gary used to come over to my house almost daily when we were kids, but I secretly prized the times he invited me over to his parent’s place. I had more board games than he did and had gained a bit of a reputation for being a killer table-hockey player, so Gary and a lot of other kids always wanted to test me out. But Gary’s house had gadgets—lots of gadgets. By today’s jargon, I’d call Gary’s mom and dad early adopters.

For example, Gary was among the first kids in school to brag about owning a color TV; he was the first to get a cassette player and a movie camera. I also remember that his folks had kitchen appliances that shined—maybe because they went out to eat a lot. Oh, and they had a car, not that this was necessarily a big deal, except for families like mine that didn’t. For me, entering Gary’s house was like walking into Walt Disney’s Carousel of Progress.

Both figuratively and literally Disney has been on the vanguard of innovation since the iconic movie maker opened Disneyland in 1955. Our cover story this month, “What the House of Tomorrow Can Teach Us Today,” opens with a photo spread, across pages 30 and 31, showcasing the Monsanto House of the Future, a popular Disneyland attraction from 1957 to 1967. But the Monsanto house was more than a simple attraction, it was a presumed beacon for how we would live in the future—a future, 1986, that has long passed us. You can see the kitschy promotional video for the house at http://bit.ly/1vC9Cxt.

One of the takeaways from the House of the Future is that, in some ways, technology has far outpaced even the imagination of what the future would hold. But we also see some accurate projections.

The paradox of any archetype that looks ahead in time—a house, a car, a [fill in the blank] of the future—is either that the prototypes are built too many years ago to be considered futuristic today, or those created today are too fundamentally ill-informed to provide realistic projections of tomorrow. Still, they’re valuable as benchmarks of innovation.

Earlier this year, Samsung introduced its own house of the future, the Samsung Smart House. It features a home environment containing technology that’s available today to you and me. You can see Samsung’s promotional video on the house at http://bit.ly/1A29EXl.

Samsung’s and other visions of the house of the future are a showpiece for connectivity. They’re defined by the burgeoning buzz phrase, the Internet of Things (IoT), which delivers the backbone for interconnectivity, be it household devices or industrial chains. In a home environment, the IoT is represented by appliances controlled through voice recognition, or from outside the home through cell phones, tablets, and other mobile devices.

Even as I admired the gadgets in his home, Gary and I preferred to debate the trades of our favorite baseball team more than the future of technology. Not that we didn’t daydream about space stations, visits to Mars, oversize televisions, and wristwatch phones. We didn’t think then that these things would really exist one day. Much like we don’t know today what 2015 will bring, let alone what the home might look like in 2045.

23
Dec
14

making life better through innovation

MEM1114FINALE.inddThe Unisphere at Flushing Meadows-Corona Park in New York City—a park not too distant from where I grew up—was built as the icon of the 1964-1965 New York World’s Fair. It was dedicated to celebrate “man’s achievements on a shrinking globe in an expanding universe.”

This year marks the 50th anniversary of that World’s Fair and the Unisphere remains a part of the city’s recognizable landscape. Many people now probably identify it mostly as a symbol for the annual U.S. Open Tennis Championships, which is held at the park. After a few years of neglect, the Unisphere again shines brightly above the glow of spotlights and, like the old days, water flows from the fountain.

Fittingly, the statement about a “shrinking globe” that defined the Unisphere when it was dedicated keeps getting more relevant by the day. Technologies far more advanced than those showcased in the pavilions of the World’s Fair continue to transform communication, transportation, education, and other areas.

It was nice to visit the park again in September for this year’s Maker Faire, a collection of engineers, tinkerers, and garage inventors who were showcasing and celebrating innovation. It was a fitting location given the park’s legacy with innovation. The maker culture represents a technology-based extension of the do-it-yourself movement. Makers like to tinker in electronics, robotics, and 3-D printing as much as woodworking and metalworking.

I’ve met few mechanical engineers who didn’t work on gadgets in their basements or car engines in their garages growing up, or even now. But the maker movement also has a more serious subtext. The developing world—where resources are often scarce and access to the technology that we take for granted here is limited—is full of makers. Some have become renowned, but others work silently to help build better, safer environments for themselves, their families, and their villages. We might consider some of the things that they create tools or gadgets rather than technology, but to millions of people these locally sourced innovations represent vital instruments of everyday life.

At a forum on engineering for global development at this month’s ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, a group of influential thinkers, who are most familiar with the nuances of the technology, economics, and politics of the developing world, will debate the ways in which those of us in the First World can help makers in the Third World usher in more sustainable technologies to local areas. The program will be streamed live on asme.org on Nov. 17.

This movement is one push toward the democratization of technology, where greater access to better technology for more people leads to a better life.

Since its formation in 1880, ASME’s mission has been to advance technology and safety. So besides noting the Unisphere’s anniversary, in this issue we celebrate the 100th anniversary of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was first published in 1914. The Code is updated regularly to focus on new challenges and extend its growing influence around the world.

The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code represents one way in which the achievement of men and women—hundreds of ASME volunteers—impact a shrinking world in an expanding universe. Finding more creative solutions to make people’s lives easier is another.

 

 




The Editor

John G. Falcioni is Editor-in-Chief of Mechanical Engineering magazine, the flagship publication of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

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